Core Technology

Two-Photon Polymerization (TPP)


Two-photon polymerization (TPP) is a direct laser writing technology. With TPP, the light-matter interaction only takes place within the volume of a focused laser spot.

The simultaneous absorption of two photons in the focused spot triggers the locally confined polymerization of an exposed photoresist.

The laser focus can be moved through the volume of the photoresist along all three spatial dimensions. Complex 3D structures are written along the laser’s trajectory, using light like a brush.

Thanks to its versatility, TPP fabrication has applications in many fields, including microoptics, photonics, micromechanics and biomedicine.

Advantages of TPP

High resolution and real 3D printing capabilities set TPP apart from alternative technologies and enable novel applications in different industries.

Complex Structures in One Process Step


Very complex structures can be fabricated in one single process step without the need for subsequent deposition of fresh material as in conventional 3D printing technologies (e.g. metal 3D printing or stereolithography).

Resolution below the Diffraction Limit


Non-linear absorption means that printing resolution at the 100 nm scale can be achieved. The resolution is therefore not limited by diffraction, as opposed to conventional laser scanning methods.

Accuracy and Scalability


Very accurate structures can be realized, ranging from the sub-micrometer to the centimeter scale. TPP bridges the gap between nano- and microfabrication tools and conventional 3D printing.

Integration into Nano- and Microfabrication Processes


Since the technology uses the same materials (photoresists and solvents) used in standard nano- and microfabrication, integration into conventional workflows is seamless.

On-Device Printing


Structures can be printed directly on active (LEDs, photodiodes, EELs, VCSELs) or passive (fibers, irregular substrates) devices.

This eliminates time intensive legacy processes such as active alignment of individual components.

TPP fabrication process -
based on three steps

To achieve high quality results, deep knowledge on structure formation induced by the exposure strategy is crucial. Over the years, MPO has developed and optimized exposure strategies for printing results in accordance with customer requirements.