Two-Photon Polymerization (TPP) multi-user tool for 3D Lithography and 3D Microprinting of microstructures with applications in Optics, Photonics, Mechanics, and Biomedical Engineering.
The modular 3D printing platform MPO 100 offers high precision on demand for 3D Lithography as well as high print volume for 3D Microprinting and enables production of complex functional microstructures with high throughput in a single process step.
The MPO 100 is a product developed by Multiphoton Optics. Sales and Service will be provided by Heidelberg Instruments. Please visit: Heidelberg Instruments product page.
- Printing height of over 1 cm
- Surface quality: Roughness down to 10 nm
- Resolution down to 100 nm
- Scan speeds over 1000 mm/s
- Flowbox with temperature control down to ± 0.1 °C
- Print area of 100 mm x 100 mm
- Stitching-free fabrication capability
- Synchronized scanning system
- Application-specific Write Modes
- Additive processing of organic and hybrid polymers (ORMOCER®s)
- Optional software modules for customer-specific print jobs
- Subtractive processing of metal layers (Au, Ag, Cr, …)
3D scaffold structures for biomedical applications such as implants in regenerative medicine. Poly-Implant-Druck project, FKZ: 13XP5089D
High quality microoptical elements with varying shapes (e.g. freeform) and sizes can be fabricated either on planar substrates or directly on active/passive devices.
Metastructures with feature sizes below the diffraction limit can be fabricated in a single process step. PHENOmenon project, Grant Agreement 780278
3D structures for diverse applications such as optics, mechanics, and life science can be fabricated at high speed.
Vertical lens system: Entire optical systems can be fabricated in a single process step without the need for alignment.
Metalens for visible light: One-step fabrication of a planar metalens with novel functionalities. PHENOmenon project, Grant Agreement 780278
Microlens on EEL facet: Cylindrical microlens fabricated directly on the facet of a DFB laser to compensate the elliptical beam profile. Partner: nanoplus Nanosystems and Technologies GmbH.
Bone-cartilage scaffold: 3D scaffold structures with micro- and macroporosity for bone cartilage implants. Project Poly-Implant-Druck FKZ: 13XP5089D
Microfluidic reactor: Microfluidic structures with high complexity and with tunable channel width.
Retro-reflector: Fabrication of high-quality masters used in diverse replication technologies.
What is 3D Lithography and 3D Microprinting?
Due to its inherent 3D capability, Two-Photon Polymerization (TPP) enables the fabrication of very complex structures in a single process step and closes the gap between conventional lithography (e.g. DUV/UV) on the one side and classical 3D printing technologies (e.g. SLA) on the other side. The MPO 100 was designed to enable both 3D Lithography with feature sizes and resolutions down to 100 nm and 3D Microprinting with print heights of up to 2 cm and fast scan speeds of over 1000 mm/s. Thus, the MPO 100 is an ideal Multi-User tool for working on different applications with varying demands on the printing process.
What is the central laser wavelength used in Multiphoton Optics' equipments?
The MPO 100 uses a fs-pulsed laser operating in the green spectral range. State-of-the art in TPP technology are either green or NIR lasers. As shorter in wavelength, green lasers enable smaller feature sizes and resolution and are suited to process a broad range of resists. In particular ORMOCER®s, a unique and well-established hybrid polymer class consisting of inorganic and organic components, can be processed with high scan speeds of up to 1000 mm/s. Furthermore, the MPO 100 enables additional microfabrication techniques, like metal ablation.
Stitching vs. non-stitching
The scanning system of the MPO 100 consists of a high-performance air-bearing stage that is synchronized to the high speed galvoscanner. Besides conventional stitching by a step-and-scan exposure, the combined movement of stage and scanner allows a stitching-free fabrication.
The various exposure modes are enabled by the combination of a fast galvoscanner axis to deflect the laser beam with high performance air-bearing translation stages to move the sample. Therefore, three exposure modes are possible with the MPO 100:
- The galvo-scanner exhibits very high dynamics and enables high scanning speeds. However, the working area is limited to the Field-of-View (FoV) of the microscope objective. To realize structures that are larger than the FoV, stitching via a step-and-expose method is applied.
- To avoid stitching the scanning can be executed by using the translation stage only with a travel range of 100 mm x 100 mm. As the translation stage exhibits higher inertia, the maximum scan speed is limited.
- To benefit from both the high dynamics of the galvo-scanner as well as the process area of the translation stage, the MPO 100 is equipped with a so-called Infinite Field-of-View (IFoV) mode which is based on the synchronized movement of the galvo-scanner and the translation stage. This expands the FoV of the Write Mode to the entire area of the translation stage.
What kind of stitching algorithms are available?
When stitching is applied sophisticated algorithms and strategies can be used to minimize or even completely prevent potential artefacts in the structures. Various methods are implemented based on stitching via galvo-scanner only and on synchronized IFoV.
What surface roughness can be achieved?
Depending on the requirements the surface roughness (RMS) can be adjusted to lower than 10 nm.
What kind of photoresist can be structured?
Negative photoresists: exposed areas are cross-linked and remain on the substrate after the development step.
Positive photoresists: exposed areas are removed by the development step.
What kind of substrates can be used?
The MPO 100 enables fabrication on regular planar substrates (e.g. glass or silicon wafers) as well as on-device-printing: direct fabrication on active/passive devices (e.g. lasers, photodiodes, fibers).
What are typical substrate thicknesses?
Using air objectives or dip-in objectives the substrate thickness can be as high as several centimeters. Using oil-immersion objectives, the typical thickness is 0.17 mm. Processing on ultra-thin substrates with a thickness of only 30 micrometer is also possible.
What type of focusing optics can be used?
Immersion and air objectives are available for MPO 100. Immersion objectives exhibit high numerical apertures to ensure highest printing resolution. Immersion objectives can either be used as oil immersion type or as dip-in type with the objective in physical contact with the photoresist. Air objectives exhibit lower numerical apertures but in general provide a larger Field-of-View (FoV).
What are typical scan speeds used in fabrication?
Typical fabrication speeds range from 50 mm/s to more than 1000 mm/s.
What is full-volume scan and contouring scan?
A full-volume scan exposes the complete volume of a structure in a layer-by-layer process. This method is appropriate for complex 3D structures.
A contouring scan exposes only the shell of a structure. The inner part can be polymerized after the development step by a simple UV exposure. This method can be used to decrease the fabrication time.
What is 2D/3D contouring?
Doing a contouring scan for an object, two different strategies can be applied. The 2D contouring exposes the shell of a structure layer-by-layer. The 3D contouring scans the real topography of a structure. For both 2D/3D contouring the enclosed unpolymerized photoresist will be cross-linked in a subsequent UV exposure after the development step.
What are the advantages of ORMOCER®s?
The material class of ORMOCER®s exhibit unique chemical, physical and mechanical properties. ORMOCER®s consist of an inorganic-organic network. The inorganic components provide glass-like properties whereas the organic components enable conventional processing as pure organic polymers. One of the mainly used ORMOCER® in TPP is the well-known OrmoComp®.
Hybrid Polymers For Micro and Nano Optical Components - Unique Features:
- Excellent transparency for VIS and near UV down to 350 nm.
- Excellent thermal stability of cured patterns up to 300 °C (short term), 270 °C (long term).
- High mechanical and chemical stability of cured structures.
- High resolution down to 100 nm feature size.
- Compatible to UV imprint and UV moulding.
- Compatible to UV lithography with proximity exposure.
- Ready-to-use solutions, solvent-free formulations.
- Well-established in industrial large-volume production of optical components.
- Ideally suited to be processed with 515 nm TPP wavelength.
- Compatible to various stamp materials (e.g. PDMS, PFPE, OrmoStamp®, quartz, Ni).
Desktop software to transform design data into virtual GCode.
- Machine-independent virtual GCode creation (code adaptable by LithoStream at machine level)
- 8 application-oriented modules covering multiple design formats
- File preparation for independent workgroups at any desktop
- Laser trajectory definition (e.g. Full-volume scanning, Contouring, LCON3D)
- Multiple fabrication modes (via stage, galvoscanner and IFoV)
MPO 100 control software to run the TPP fabrication process.
- Control of machine-dependent process parameters (e.g. scan speed, laser power)
- Selection of different microscope objectives
- Live monitoring of the fabrication process
- Batch TPP fabrication processes
- Automatic autofocus, triangulation, power calibration and power check
- Output of fabrication parameters into a fabrication/sample database
ASCII – Import of point clouds (txt files) to be connected by different splines
3D Object – Import and processing of stl/ obj files
Grayscale – Import of grayscale designs, e. g. of Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE)
Grayscale Contour – Import of grayscale designs, e. g. of Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE)
Voxel – Design of voxel fields
Workbench – Modification and rearrangement of multiple already created structures from other modules
Field – Definition of arrangement patterns (e. g. hexagonal, circle, rectangular) including automatic parameter searches
Lens – Definition or import of lens designs
Woodpile – Generation of woodpile structures